Icon "Glykophilousa", around 1920
Wood of carved frames with silvered carved Oklat. Coloured glass stones, material, gilds, oil paints.
Height: 236 cm (92,9 inches) | Breite:149 cm (58,7 inches) | Depth: 18 cm (7,1 inches)
To history and meaning
The questions after the presentability of Jesus and his mother were since the days of the early Christianity an object of violent discussions. In the byzantinsichen empire it came in the 8th and 9th century to an iconoclastic controversy with which the icons and mosaics were destroyed. In the end, however, the picture advocates sat down by namely with two essential arguments. On the one hand the human nature of Jesus and Mariae was representable, in they were changed as people on earth. On the other hand, however, one recognised the existence heavenly of legitimised pictures. To it counted possibly the pictures of the Madonna which the evangelist Lukas has made and others, in wondrous manner to resulted pictures, as for example the sweat cloth or grave cloth of Christ as well as that, from human hand to created pictures, Archeiropiten, they by itself had not appeared or were painted by angels. These representations were admissible, because her realisation occurred through divine work or at least with divine approval. Subsequently one repeated these legitimised picture types very exactly. Thus originated an icon painting which tried to preserve her Stilistika about the centuries to guarantee the greatest possible resemblance to the prototype. Besides, just the representations of the Mother of God with the Jesus' child decrease to some types whose dear prototypes were mostly kept in Konstantinopler churches or cloisters and are categorised with the help of certain Greek names.
With the type being here it concerns a Glykophilousa, "caressing" with whom Maria and the Jesus' child her cheeks huddle together. This gesture shows the tender respect, the motherly love, but also the commiseration of Marien which already preexpels on the passion, hence, also the name Eleousa "compassionate" is familiar for this type. For this representation no prototype is provable, also the concept has set up only in postbyzantine time, however, the type probably counts just because of the tender, motherly allowance till our present to the most popular icon types.
Above all in the Russian space an example has kept with the Mother of God with Vladimir from 11. or early 12th century which has played an important role in the history of Russia and is revered as a national shrine. The Russian name for diesn type is Umilenie "emotion".
The icons of this type which reached in the west were often understood as a Lukasmadonnen and are found in numerous churches. Besides, the real icon is often covered with done and partially gilt silver records which release only the faces and otherwise precious garments and crowns form.